Together with Prof. Takanishi from Waseda University we reviewed research and published a feature paper for Technology Radar of Deutsche Telekom Laboratories. From the Greek myth of Pygmalion to modern science fiction artificial life forms populate literary imagination and challenge designers around the world. Ever since their role model and antagonist has been the human being, whose desires, needs and fears, and whose culture shape their development. Today robots are integrated into the fabrics of production and service industries, and specialized models now spread into domestic environments. Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) became a critical component to the success, acceptance, and capability of robot systems. We review history and cultural factors within the development of robots focusing on humanoid and service robots in Japan. Robot models for different application domains focusing developmental efforts are being presented. We describe our notion of human robot science and exemplify the approach discussing challenges and potentials involved in the design of a humanoid robot orchestra are being elaborated upon. Finally we explore how humanoid robots may impact requirements for future communication services and infrastructures.